The mining and quarrying sector in Malaysia covers the extraction of minerals occurring naturally as solids, liquids, or gases. Extraction of these resources are achieved by different methods such as underground or surface mining, well operation, or seabed mining, and includes the mining of coal and lignite, extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas, and mining of metal ores.
In 2017, the Gross Domestic Product at factor cost (“GDP”) of the mining and quarrying sector was valued at MYR98.6 billion (constant 2010 prices). The mining and quarrying sector contributed 8.5% to Malaysia’s GDP of MYR1,156.7 billion in 2017. Between 2010 and 2017, the GDP of the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector registered a 1.4% average year-on-year growth rate. Compared to the other primary sectors—services, construction, manufacturing, agriculture—the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector was the slowest growing sector from 2010 to 2017.
The mining and quarrying sector in Malaysia can be further categorized into the following subsectors.
- Crude oil and condensates.
- Natural gas.
- Other mining and quarrying and supporting services.
In 2017, the crude oil and condensate subsector contributed 49.2% (or MYR48.5 billion) to the GDP of the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector, the largest among all subsectors, followed by the natural gas subsector (43.7% or MYR43.0 billion). Combined, these two subsectors contributed approximately 93% to the GDP of the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector. Both subsectors registered an average year-on-year growth rate of 1.3% and 1.4% respectively from 2010 to 2017; however, the other mining and quarrying and supporting services subsector grew the fastest at 10.2% due to its smaller base size.
In 2017, there were an estimated 1,400 establishments within the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector, employing approximately 97,000 people across all occupation levels. The mean and median salaries of employed persons within the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector in 2017 across all occupation levels were estimated to be about MYR5,400 and MYR3,800 per month respectively.
The growth of the mining and quarrying sector in Malaysia has slowed down considerably in recent years due to the sluggish oil and gas outlook. Between 2010 and 2017, the average year-on-year GDP growth rate of the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector increased from 1.4% (2010—2017) to 3.0% (2013—2017) before decreasing to 1.1% again (2016—2017). Based on the historical growth trend of the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector between 2010 and 2017, the GDP of the Malaysian mining and quarrying sector is projected to grow by 1.8% to MYR100.4 billion in 2018.
Other mining and quarrying and supporting services: Economic activities include mining for metallic minerals (ores), mineral processing/ore dressings, and beneficiating operations, such as crushing, grinding, washing, drying, sintering, calcining or leaching ore, gravity separation or flotation operations; specialized support services such as exploration services, taking core samples, making geological observations, drilling, test-drilling for oil wells, metallic and non-metallic minerals.
Establishments: Establishments include individual proprietorships, partnerships, limited liability partnerships, private limited companies, public limited companies, co-operatives, and public corporations.
Occupation levels: Occupation levels include skilled (managers, professionals, technicians and associate professionals), semi-skilled (clerical support, plant and machine operators, etc.), and low-skilled (elementary occupations).